Per-Arne Nilsson, Environment Department
The change harbour, shipyard and industrial area into a new urbanized district has begun in Malmö, Sweden, with plans for housing for 10,000 people and 20,000 employees and University students in the area. The first stage, the Bo01 housing estate, was constructed and completed for the European housing expo in 2001 as the ?City of Tomorrow?. The site provides a multitude of architectural solutions, forming an exciting and sustainable urban environment. The new district is supplied with 100% locally produced renewable energy the wind, sun and water. Measures for waste management, minimized transport needs, and increased biodiversity go hand in hand with other initiatives to create a strong sustainability concept for the whole area. The project has already received a great deal of international attention and recognition.
The main innovation is the large-scale development of 1,000 apartments that are highly energy efficient and supplied with 100% renewable energy. While each technology has been tested and used before, the whole system - which combines wind power, solar photovoltaics, and solar thermal, with a heat pump to supply the district with district heating and cooling - is unique. In addition, one technological innovation is the seasonal storage of heating and cooling in the limestone bedrock 90 meters below ground level.The local system is connected to the city?s existing energy infrastructure. This makes the exchange of electricity and heating possible to make the annual energy balance work. Solar energy supplies approximately 15% of the total energy need on an annual basis. The solar collectors - totalling 2600 sqm - are located on the roofs and facades of buildings, and are connected to the district heating system. This is a totally new solution to avoid large heat storage tanks in the buildings and instead use the district heating system as storage.
Efficient use of energy is essential in order to reach the target of deriving all energy local renewable energy sources. Thus, buildings in the district are designed to minimize demand for heat and electricity. The Quality Programme for Bo01 sets a common standard for developers regarding energy for the district. The target for average annual energy use on the properties is not to exceed 105 kWh per square meter of gross room area. This includes all energy related to the property; heating, hot water, as well as electricity for households and for running the building services. This concept of standards for energy requirements is one that can be transferred to other projects elsewhere around the world.Residents of these buildings will benefit these steps because improved insulation/building envelopes and natural ventilation - both of which are important for improving energy efficiency - contribute to indoor comfort. In addition, individual inhabitants will have the option to control indoor temperatures and humidity with the help of information technology (IT). Further, residents will benefit a better-planned/designed urban area that is walkable and attractive.IT will be used to measure, control and regulate different subsystems, and residents will have the opportunity to follow their own energy use - and the district's. Further, initiatives will be carried out within the district to influence behavior and further improve the efficiency of energy use.The combination of energy efficiency improvements with reliance on 100% locally produced renewable energy will bring pride to the community and greater awareness of the potential of these energy sources, while also improving people's health and quality of life. Used more widely, they can also significantly reduce the local, regional and global impacts of cities. The Bo01 project in Malmö has resulted in major reductions in GHG emissions, acidification, and eutrophication compared to the Swedish average - which was already far lower than the average for Europe as a whole. (Please see chart, in attached document of photographs, for relative environmental impacts of Bo01, Sweden and Europe.)
The project was a part of a European R&D project called SURE/RESECO within the 5th framework programme. Other European partners included the cities of Tallinn, Dublin, Barcelona, and Copenhagen. Experiences in Malmö have already helped to advance the use of clean energy elsewhere. For example, the cities of Dublin and Barcelona now have started to develop their own district heating/cooling systems. Locally the project has been developed in close cooperation between the energy company E.On Sweden and the City of Malmö, creating a basis for further cooperation in new developments in the city, and leading to innovative solutions. E.On Sweden was the initiator and the driving force behind the project development. Experiences the project have been used in several projects elsewhere in Sweden, and because E.On is the largest private energy utility in the world, E.On can easily transfer the lessons and solutions Malmö to other markets. The city of Malmö are a part of many international networks and projects. The 100% RES project in the Western harbour is one of the main investments and developments in Malmö, and often used as a good example when sharing experiences between cities.Many large investment projects are never followed closely or evaluated. For Malmö, however, a large research and evaluation program was established as a part of the national funding, and the project has been followed by several researchers universities in Sweden and around the world. Researchers five different universities have written 19 different reports, now compiled in a unique study that is available in both Swedish and English. In September 2007, the 2nd international conference on the theme Sustainable City Development will take place in Malmö. The main objective is to disseminate lessons and experiences the Western harbour and other innovative initiatives in Europe. The conference is arranged by the City of Malmö, E.On Sweden, Skåne Region and other regional organizations and companies, and is supported by the EU Commission. (www.malmo.se/sustainablecity)
One main objective is to make renewable energy more attractive, visible and acceptable to the public. To this end (among other things), solar cells and collectors are part of the buildings, on rooftops and facades, and carefully integrated in the architecture of the area. Some buildings also have "greenroofs", making the buildings more energy efficient while also adding greenery to the area.The project has been used as a model for other developments. Mainly as a demonstration area and a driving force for sustainable urban development in Malmö, as well as other parts of the world.Politicians, engineers, architects and planners countries around the world - including the United States, China, Japan, UK, and other EU countries - have visited the Western harbour for inspiration and information. For those who cannot visit, several articles and research reports have been written about the project. Through these many avenues, it is hoped and expected that the lessons and experiences gained in Malmö will lead to the development of similar projects elsewhere, further increasing the use of clean energy (energy used more efficiently, and derived local, sustainable renewable sources), improving human and ecosystem health, and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Environmentally the project has outstanding performance as all energy, on an annual basis, is produced by renewable energy sources. Economically the project has been supported by both national and EU funding for the development of new technology. Investments are, of course, higher than those for a conventional energy system but, in the long run, the life cycle costs will be lower. The residents have the same type of contracts as people in the rest of the city, and don?t pay more for the energy bill than other energy consumers.Socially the project has contributed to an identity for the new district and the city of Malmö. The inhabitants are proud to be a part of a sustainable city and have accepted the new technology and can be ?ambassadors? for the new area.
The Bo01 project in Malmö is one of the first modern urban areas (if not the first) to be heated, cooled, powered, etc. entirely by local renewable energy resources. This project demonstrates that, even in cold northern climates, it is possible to rely on 100% renewable energy to meet energy needs (in combination with highly efficient buildings, technologies, etc). It also demonstrates that the associated improvements in building and urban design can increase comfort, health and other quality of life factors for residents, while also helping to create or increase a sense of community. Malmö's lessons and experiences have already begun to spread to other parts of Sweden and elsewhere, and can have a significant impact on the mainstreaming of clean energy around the world.